skip to content
A A A

Plasmodium vivax

Plasmodium vivax malaria has been newly shown to be the most cosmopolitan of the malaria parasites and to cause significant disease and death in intensively studied populations. Its public health impact is likely therefore to have been massively underestimated. In addition, conventional control methods have no direct impact on the hypnozoite reservoir. These factors may threaten progress towards international targets to reduce childhood mortality and halt growth in malaria incidence.

The primary aim of our work in this area is to develop a novel cartographic suite for P. vivax malaria to better enumerate the population at risk of the disease, develop methodologies to improve clinical burden estimates, and thereby inform the malaria control and research community about intervention priorities at the global scale. These objectives are not trivial because worsening drug resistance and the ability of P. vivax to lie dormant in the human liver and relapse at varying intervals present as many scientific challenges to its mapping and burden estimation as it does operational challenges to the effective control of the parasite.

Current projects

Strategic planning tools for staging malaria elimination

August 2014 - September 2019

The purpose of this grant is to develop models and theory to support large-scale regional planning and for staging sustainable malaria elimination. This grant is led by Prof. David L. Smith.

The purpose of this grant is to develop models and theory to support large-scale regional planning and for staging sustainable malaria elimination. This grant is led by Prof. David L. Smith.

Read less

The purpose of this grant is to develop models and theory to support large-scale regional planning and for staging sustainable malaria elimination. This grant is led by Prof. David L....

Read more

The Malaria Modeling Consortium Secretariat

November 2014 - October 2017

Mathematical models can play an important role in guiding policy for malaria eradication. This grant establishes a consortium to coordinate mathematical modeling activities for eradication.

A new Malaria Modelling Consortium (MMC)will be created to support the global malaria elimination and eradication strategy of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The purpose of the MMC is to provide a platform for generating consensus advice for malaria eradication strategy and to provide a unified mechanism for conveying the collective knowledge gained from mathematical models into useful policy.

The MMC will comprise of five different core modelling groups (Imperial College London, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, MORU, Oxford University and Institute for Disease Modeling) coordinated through an MMC Secretariat at the University of Oxford led by Prof. Simon Hay.

Mathematical models can play an important role in guiding policy for malaria eradication. This grant establishes a consortium to coordinate mathematical modeling activities for eradication.

A new Malaria Modelling Consortium (MMC)will be created to support the global malaria elimination and eradication strategy of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The purpose of the MMC is to provide a platform for generating consensus advice for malaria eradication strategy and to provide a unified mechanism for conveying the collective knowledge gained from mathematical models into useful policy.

The MMC will comprise of five different core modelling groups (Imperial College London, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, MORU, Oxford University and Institute for Disease Modeling) coordinated through an MMC Secretariat at the University of Oxford led by Prof. Simon Hay.

Read less

Mathematical models can play an important role in guiding policy for malaria eradication. This grant establishes a consortium to coordinate mathematical modeling activities for eradication. A new Malaria Modelling Consortium (MMC)will be created to...

Read more

Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship in Basic Biomedical Science (SRF)
Defining the population at risk and burden of disease of Plasmodium vivax malaria

December 2011 - May 2017

Our previous work has shown mapping to be fundamental to understanding the epidemiology of P. falciparum and for monitoring public health impacts on malaria at a global scale. In parallel, the public health significance of P. vivax has been increasingly appreciated. Developing an equivalent cartography for P. vivax is the subject of this theme. A detailed knowledge of the distribution and intensity of P. vivax transmission, populations at risk of the disease and its clinical burden, will provide a bench-mark against which control and elimination targets may be set, intervention plans implemented, and their effects efficiently monitored.

New work has highlighted the public health importance of the Plasmodium vivax malaria parasite. Developing the science to map the disease and measure its burden worldwide is the main goal of this SRF renewal. The work will prioritize five areas. (1) Improving mapping techniques and accuracy in areas of relatively low risk, where the majority of the population at risk reside. (2) Developing new endemicity mapping techniques for those areas where the parasite is transmitted throughout the year and is a greater medical problem. (3) Developing methods to transform these maps into local numbers of cases for efficient health care planning. (4) Combining these incidence risk maps with maps of the prevalence of a genetic condition (G6PD deficiency) is then needed, to quantify the probability of such individuals suffering potentially life threatening reactions, following treatment with the only liver-stage curative drug available, primaquine. (5) Combining new mathematical models with these maps will then enable the mapping of a measure of the capacity for disease growth under current levels of control, which is essential to the control and elimination strategies for P. vivax, particularly in Asia. The biology of P. vivax makes all of this work a tremendous scientific challenge. The SRF was awarded to Simon Hay and members of the group currently working in this area are Katherine Battle, Kirsten DudaRos Howes, Joshua Longbottom and Adrian Mylne.

Our previous work has shown mapping to be fundamental to understanding the epidemiology of P. falciparum and for monitoring public health impacts on malaria at a global scale. In parallel, the public health significance of P. vivax has been increasingly appreciated. Developing an equivalent cartography for P. vivax is the subject of this theme. A detailed knowledge of the distribution and intensity of P. vivax transmission, populations at risk of the disease and its clinical burden, will provide a bench-mark against which control and elimination targets may be set, intervention plans implemented, and their effects efficiently monitored.

New work has highlighted the public health importance of the Plasmodium vivax malaria parasite. Developing the science to map the disease and measure its burden worldwide is the main goal of this SRF renewal. The work will prioritize five areas. (1) Improving mapping techniques and accuracy in areas of relatively low risk, where the majority of the population at risk reside. (2) Developing new endemicity mapping techniques for those areas where the parasite is transmitted throughout the year and is a greater medical problem. (3) Developing methods to transform these maps into local numbers of cases for efficient health care planning. (4) Combining these incidence risk maps with maps of the prevalence of a genetic condition (G6PD deficiency) is then needed, to quantify the probability of such individuals suffering potentially life threatening reactions, following treatment with the only liver-stage curative drug available, primaquine. (5) Combining new mathematical models with these maps will then enable the mapping of a measure of the capacity for disease growth under current levels of control, which is essential to the control and elimination strategies for P. vivax, particularly in Asia. The biology of P. vivax makes all of this work a tremendous scientific challenge. The SRF was awarded to Simon Hay and members of the group currently working in this area are Katherine Battle, Kirsten DudaRos Howes, Joshua Longbottom and Adrian Mylne.

Read less

Our previous work has shown mapping to be fundamental to understanding the epidemiology of P. falciparum and for monitoring public health impacts on malaria at a global scale. In parallel, the public health significance of P. vivax has been...

Read more

Wellcome Trust Research Training Fellowship
Human mobility in the Indonesian archipelago and risk of malaria importation into the receptive malaria free zones.

October 2013 - September 2016

This research aims to develop the quantitative framework of human mobility and feasibility assessment for malaria elimination in the Indonesian archipelago where the risk of infection with malaria is extremely heterogeneous across the 5000 km-long chain of 17,000 islands. This research will be essential to comprehensively improving the national evidence-based malaria control strategies to reach the pre-elimination stage by 2020 and to be free of malaria in 2030.

The work will prioritize three areas: 1) the use of mobile phone data to explore the patterns of massive human movement across Indonesian archipelago, 2) determination of the likely sources, risks and number of imported malaria among travellers and susceptible individuals and 3) mapping the operational feasibility and constraints of malaria elimination.

Substantial spatial data, established modelling framework and high resolution of database will be incorporated to capture within-country differences exist that might underscore different challenges faced by districts. Critical indicators that constrain districts from achieving their elimination agenda will be identified. This research will allow malaria control authorities to design interventions that can reduce transmission in all regions adapted to local situations.

Iqbal Elyazar's Research Training Fellowship in Public Health and Tropical Medicine awarded by the Wellcome Trust is under the sponsorship of Simon Hay, Kevin Baird and Andrew Tatem.

This research aims to develop the quantitative framework of human mobility and feasibility assessment for malaria elimination in the Indonesian archipelago where the risk of infection with malaria is extremely heterogeneous across the 5000 km-long chain of 17,000 islands. This research will be essential to comprehensively improving the national evidence-based malaria control strategies to reach the pre-elimination stage by 2020 and to be free of malaria in 2030.

The work will prioritize three areas: 1) the use of mobile phone data to explore the patterns of massive human movement across Indonesian archipelago, 2) determination of the likely sources, risks and number of imported malaria among travellers and susceptible individuals and 3) mapping the operational feasibility and constraints of malaria elimination.

Substantial spatial data, established modelling framework and high resolution of database will be incorporated to capture within-country differences exist that might underscore different challenges faced by districts. Critical indicators that constrain districts from achieving their elimination agenda will be identified. This research will allow malaria control authorities to design interventions that can reduce transmission in all regions adapted to local situations.

Iqbal Elyazar's Research Training Fellowship in Public Health and Tropical Medicine awarded by the Wellcome Trust is under the sponsorship of Simon Hay, Kevin Baird and Andrew Tatem.

Read less

This research aims to develop the quantitative framework of human mobility and feasibility assessment for malaria elimination in the Indonesian archipelago where the risk of infection with malaria is extremely heterogeneous across the 5000 km-long...

Read more

Plasmodium vivax in Madagascar:
epidemiology and interactions with Duffy blood type

September 2013 - August 2015

The SEEG group holds a subcontract for a NIH-funded project led by Prof. Peter A. Zimmerman, Case Western Reserve University in collaboration with Dr Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Director of the National Malaria Control Programme in Madagascar and senior lecturer at the University of Antananarivo. Dr Rosalind Howes is based part-time in Madagascar as a post-doctoral epidemiologist on this project. Prof. Simon Hay is an expert consultant.

The project aims to advance understanding of the epidemiology of P. vivax malaria in relation to Duffy blood groups. The diverse origins of the Malagasy people mean a homogenous mix of Duffy positive and negative hosts are present, which may help explain the previous observations of P. vivax infections of Duffy negative red blood cells. The current project's objectives are to further understand the epidemiology of these infections, and study the underlying molecular mechanisms enabling apparent Duffy-independent infection.

The findings of this work will be important to the Malaria Atlas Project P. vivax work by helping to refine the approach to mapping of P. vivax endemicity in relation to Duffy blood group, and help refine estimates of the population at risk of infection.

The SEEG group holds a subcontract for a NIH-funded project led by Prof. Peter A. Zimmerman, Case Western Reserve University in collaboration with Dr Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Director of the National Malaria Control Programme in Madagascar and senior lecturer at the University of Antananarivo. Dr Rosalind Howes is based part-time in Madagascar as a post-doctoral epidemiologist on this project. Prof. Simon Hay is an expert consultant.

The project aims to advance understanding of the epidemiology of P. vivax malaria in relation to Duffy blood groups. The diverse origins of the Malagasy people mean a homogenous mix of Duffy positive and negative hosts are present, which may help explain the previous observations of P. vivax infections of Duffy negative red blood cells. The current project's objectives are to further understand the epidemiology of these infections, and study the underlying molecular mechanisms enabling apparent Duffy-independent infection.

The findings of this work will be important to the Malaria Atlas Project P. vivax work by helping to refine the approach to mapping of P. vivax endemicity in relation to Duffy blood group, and help refine estimates of the population at risk of infection.

Read less

The SEEG group holds a subcontract for a NIH-funded project led by Prof. Peter A. Zimmerman, Case Western Reserve University in collaboration with Dr Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Director of the National Malaria Control Programme in Madagascar and...

Read more